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Alakos ábrázolások és feltételezett szentélykörzet a magyarországi kora vaskorból

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dc.contributor.editor Bajusz, István hu_HU
dc.contributor.editor Benkő, Elek hu_HU
dc.contributor.editor Emődi, Tamás hu_HU
dc.contributor.editor Kovács, András hu_HU
dc.contributor.editor László, Attila hu_HU
dc.contributor.editor hu_HU
dc.contributor.editor hu_HU
dc.contributor.editor hu_HU
dc.coverage.spatial hu_HU
dc.coverage.spatial hu_HU
dc.coverage.spatial hu_HU
dc.coverage.spatial hu_HU
dc.coverage.spatial hu_HU
dc.coverage.temporal hu_HU
dc.coverage.temporal hu_HU
dc.creator Fekete, Mária hu_HU
dc.date.accessioned 2016-05-12T11:47:13Z
dc.date.available 2016-05-12T11:47:13Z
dc.date.created hu_HU
dc.date.issued 2011 hu_HU
dc.identifier.isbn 978-606-8178-36-3 hu_HU
dc.identifier.issn hu_HU
dc.identifier.uri http://hdl.handle.net/10598/29244
dc.description hu_HU
dc.description.abstract The present study enumerates the anthropomorphic and teriomorphic bronze plastics of the Hungarian early Iron Age and makes an attempt to verify their Hungarian findspots as opposed to the former, generally accepted polemization. The small statues, pendants, and torques (figs 1-7) depicting women and men are the most controversial finds of the early Iron Age. Due to their special nature they got into the collections separately from the other finds, mostly “from unknown findspots” or by uncertain circumstances. The themes, object and functions of the anthropomorphic figures are difficult to define. One cannot prove the superhuman or divine essence of the depicted figures, some of them can have been the celebrants or partakers of ceremonies. Examples are the small statues of maids carrying a vessel (Somlószőlős, Kalaposkő), the man with a torques (Nyergesújfalu), the man blowing an aulos (Százhalombatta). The other characteristic of the statuette of Kalaposkő is, based on the frayed circle on its head, that it was pendant from a certain object. Close parallels can be found in the Naturhistorisches Museum in Vienna. {From a big disc with a series of holes at its bottom anthropomorphic pendants are hanging, fibulas and small bronze pendants. From the little statues of women two resemble especially closely the statue of Velem / Bozsok – Kalaposkő, they were similary made in a slightly bent posture, making a small step. Pendants of another concept but of similar female figures and double animal-shapes (horse, ram, bull) can be seen on the decorated chain of the Naturhistorisches Museum.} Our two small anthropomorphic statues can have been a part of a bigger plastic composition of unknown nature or a figure of it; a figure formed with a tenon on its leg: (Mohács?) - Élesd and the “Sopron region” as its findspot. The flat male and female figures prepared in an open mould or in a bivalve mould yet made flat and formed schematically can have been votive statues (“Szombathely region”, Mount Somló, Keszthely - Dobogó). The mounted figures may display a warrior or a heros(?) (Székesfehérvár, the Sümeg area, and one of unknown find-place). The half plastic of Ószőny was probably a decoration part of a candelabrum or of thimiatherion. The statue of Máriacsalád (Velké Lov’cé) must have been a decoration, a kit of a kind of a platform. In the Hungarian finds of the Hallstatt Age there were anthropomorphic figures made of clay, as separate plastics or as applications of vessels, too. In the description of the assemblage of the third tumulus burial of Szalacska we can read: “in a small red vessel there was also a black female idol. Next to one of the pillars of the burial chamber we came across of another broken idol.” A fragment of an anthropomorphic clay figure (8.3 cm) was found in the settlement of Keszthely-Apátdomb, too. The processing of our bronze, cast animal portrayal and of our animal shaped handled pendants is even worse than that of the anthropomorphic figures. What we have at our disposal are old, unsure data of the findspots, mentions in the academic literature yet without pictures. Some of these are independent plastics, others are pendants or “fibulas” in the cases of which, due to the deficiencies, the original functions of the object cannot even be identified. In the Naturhistorisches Museum a highly interesting bronze object from the find-place (“Komárom region”) is kept (NHM.51.255.). The solid plastic cast from bronze with yellowish patination has three legs showing a cat-like predator (perhaps a lion?) and three heads resembling different animals. Although the object does not furnish an example of the highest standard of bronze statuary, it deserves attention because of its rarity. The portrayals can primarily be heads of ram/goat – bull – baby deer with twisted horns. The three legs stretching in three directions (actually tripus) and the three-headed plastic are pierced where the necks met perpendicularly. This is where the platform of the lamp or burner was fitted in. We have no evidence of any parallels of the object. In its style and elaboration it is clearly distinct from the objects made in Italian Etruscan or other workshops. However, it can be related to the style of a part of the aforementioned animal plastics and primarly to that of the cultic carriage of the Strettweg in Styria - also without a parallel. It is worthy of note that the makers of the animal composition ingot were obviously familiar with Etruscan three legs. This can best be witnessed by the formation of the leg of the lion being the fourth animal. Yet the solution cannot be linked to an Italian but an East-Alpine (including Transdanubia) workshop. In order to assemble the burner – or lampholder platform as well as to hold the decorations of the upper part cylindrical, punched, chronically profiled members are needed, one can find examples of this among the findings of the settlement of Velem-Szentvid. The bust of Ószőny, No 9 of our anthropomorphic finds can have belonged to an object like this or to another bronze – tool (platform) with composite elements and decorations of plastic. A bird-shaped vessel with a graphited black surface (fig 11) stems from Velem-Szentvid. We have very little information on objects that came to Transdanubia in the course of a complicated network system or that were partly made on the spot as reproductions, which had a prestige value, cultic significance or Mediterranean origin or feature. This holds especially true of the usage and related rites of these objects and the cults and the venerated gods or the cultic sites of the heroses or transcendental creatures. In the early times sanctuaries were to be found primarily in special places mainly formed by nature. Examples are the meeting areas of geobotanic zones, mature trees water or mountain passages, springs, swamps, cliffs, caves, etc. Even antique sources knew of sacral regions. In order to clarify the “sacred character” it is important precisely to fix and elaborate on the names of findspots, after all, they can have preserved for us geographic “abnormalities” which underlined the sanctified feature of the sites for the people of prehistory. Instances are Hutstone (Kalaposkő), Broadstone (Széleskő), Tablestone (Asztalkő), Devil’s Table (Ördögasztala), Vision Stone (Satzenstein), Preathing Stool (Prädigtstuhl), Apostles’s Tree (Apostolok fája), Murderrock (Gyilkos szikla) and some other similar terms used in the neighbourhood of Velem-Szentvid even today. The enumerated names are all to be found in the “outer sites” of the findspot, in the region of the prehistoric “town” with a diameter of a couple of kilometres, in the zones of the suburb (proastion). It is to be assumed that here ancient sanctuaries can be reconstructed as well. An example for this can have been the detected remainder of a building at the foot of Mount Szentvid, the finds of which were first published by Kálmán Miske. Another important sanctuary (region) obviously serving as a site of public festivals can have been at Kalaposkő in the Kőszeg-Mountains. From here we get a good view of Szentvid lying to the north/north-east of it, to the “town”, the political – economic centre (fig. 12). In 1908 the bronze statuette of the young woman carrying a sacrificial vessel, treated by us under number 1 in our former enumeration was recovered here. To the south of this site, in a distance of about one day’s walk, on the Vashegy of Vaskeresztes-Magyarkeresztes in the course of viniculture a bronze treasure find was found in the early 20th century. The valuable, representative bronze jewels were hidden in a ribbed bronze cista (Rippenzisten), covered by a stone. All of our treasure finds from the Hallstatt Age known so far occurred in so-called special places: next to a tumulus burial site, at a rock, covered with a stone in abovementioned Magyarkeresztes, at a spring in Ravazd – Kisravazd, in a swamp in Szárazd-Regöly and Regöly, from river in Kurd. In the Hungarian practice of museums an object which was found in an unknown archaeological find-place (settlement or cemetery) is referred to as “scattered” or of diminished value. By way of this method we render the definition and future mapping of the formerly existent cultic sites impossible. One should re-evaluate this practice and one ought to record the archaeological and geographical circumstances and sites of the objects recovered outside the settlements and graveyards. The site of Hatstone (Kalaposkő) (fig 13) designates six bigger and the number of smaller blocks of rocks and small caves. From the East, from Broadstone (Széleskő) to Kalaposkő there leads a route of about 200-220 metres, an assumed via sacra, at both ends of the block through two gate stones each. At the western side of the block of rocks there is a pair of gate stones, through these one can get to a newer site with cliffs and caves. In 1908 Kálmán Miske published the female figure with the hanging head of Kalaposkő but nobody ever investigated this significant question on the spot. During 14 seasons of the excavations of Velem-Szentvid and under the political circumstances of the time when only a part of the field work could be performed, in spite of numerous attempts and obtained entrance licenses to the border zone, one could not get into the strictly sealed area. It only became possible after the political change of 1989, the end of the border zone and the demolition of the barbed wire. When I no longer worked in Vas county, in summer time I often visited the Kalaposkő with my family. My husband, the historian of the Ancient Times and religion, István Tóth enthusiastically analyzed the site and he represented the firm conviction that he was visiting a significant prehistoric cultic centre. He planned to write a study on this, prepared an interpretative draft on the area. He asked Gábor Ilon to excavate in the territory, who carried out verifying excavations with his students, who were archaeology – technicians. In the course of this work it was confirmed that these natural sites were used in many eras of the prehistoric times. István Tóth, based on his unique talent and qualifications as historian of the Antiquities and religion, understood and had an intuition to comprehend the essence of the site of Kalaposkő. One day, perhaps in a better time, there will be demand and money to clarify these important questions and other finds of the Via Sacra of Hatstone/Kalaposkő of the early Iron Age, its altars and sanctuary region can be disinterred. May God grant that one day the hypotheses of István Tóth related to Kalaposkő will be thrown light upon! As an end of these lines let us have a look at the draft prepared by István Tóth in July 2002 (fig 14) on the sites of Kalaposkő. The signs of the rough map (from the copy book of István Tóth): Cleavage A = Gate stones along the two sides of the road (pylon) B = “Kalapos” stones (altar) – (Hatstone) B1= Cliff eaves looking north = a fire making and beacon site C = Pulpit (“Szószék”) stones with a circular route D = The “sight-stones” pointing to Mount Szentvid E = Rocks hanging out, pointing to the south – grave temples? hu_HU
dc.description.tableofcontents 15-42 old. hu_HU
dc.format PDF hu_HU
dc.language.iso hun hu_HU
dc.language.iso hu_HU
dc.language.iso hu_HU
dc.publisher Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület hu_HU
dc.relation.ispartofseries Dolgozatok az Erdélyi Múzeum Érem- és Régiségtárából -új sorozat III-IV. kötet hu_HU
dc.rights Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület hu_HU
dc.source Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület hu_HU
dc.subject régészet hu_HU
dc.subject vaskor hu_HU
dc.subject emberábrázolások hu_HU
dc.subject szentélykörzet hu_HU
dc.subject bronz hu_HU
dc.subject zoomorf alakok hu_HU
dc.subject kandeláber-láb hu_HU
dc.subject hu_HU
dc.subject hu_HU
dc.subject hu_HU
dc.subject hu_HU
dc.subject hu_HU
dc.subject hu_HU
dc.subject hu_HU
dc.title Alakos ábrázolások és feltételezett szentélykörzet a magyarországi kora vaskorból hu_HU
dc.title.alternative Figurative portrayals and a presumed sanctuary region from the Early Iron Age in Hungary hu_HU
dc.type article hu_HU
dcterms.provenance Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület hu_HU
europeana.provider Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület hu_HU
europeana.unstored Erdélyi Múzeum-Egyesület hu_HU
europeana.type TEXT hu_HU
dcterms.medium paper hu_HU


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